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Walking balance is mediated by muscle strength and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: an observational study

  • Background: Depletion of ovarian hormone in postmenopausal women has been associated with changes in the locomotor apparatus that may compromise walking function including muscle atrophy/weakness, weight gain, and bone demineralization. Therefore, handgrip strength (HGS), bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition [percentage body fat mass (%BFM), fat mass (FM), Fat-free mass (FFM) and body mass index (BMI)], may significantly vary and predict WB in postmenopausal women. Consequently, the study sought to 1. Explore body composition, BMD and muscle strength differences between premenopausal and postmenopausal women and 2. Explore how these variables [I.e., body composition, BMD and muscle strength] relate to WB in postmenopausal women. Method: Fifty-one pre-menopausal (35.74 + 1.52) and 50 postmenopausal (53.32 + 2.28) women were selected by convenience sampling and studied. Six explanatory variables (HGS, BMD, %BFM, FFM, BMI and FM) were explored to predict WB in postmenopausal women: Data collected were analyzed using multiple linear regression, ANCOVA, independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient at p < 0.05. Result: Postmenopausal women had higher BMI(t = + 1.72; p = 0.04), %BFM(t = + 2.77; p = .003), FM(t = + 1.77; p = 0.04) and lower HGS(t = − 3.05; p = 0.001),compared to the premenopausal women. The predicted main effect of age on HGS was not significant, F(1, 197) = 0.03, p = 0.06, likewise the interaction between age and %BFM, F(1, 197) = 0.02, p = 0.89; unlike the predicted main effect of %BFM, F(1, 197) = 10.34, p = .002, on HGS. HGS was the highest predictor of WB (t = 2.203; β=0.3046) in postmenopausal women and combined with T-score right big toe (Tscorert) to produce R2 = 0.11;F (2, 47)=4.11;p = 0.02 as the best fit for the predictive model. The variance (R2) change was significant from HGS model (R2 = 0.09;p = 0.03) to HGS + Tscorert model (R2 = 0.11;p = 0.02). The regression model equation was therefore given as: WB =5.4805 + 0.1578(HGS) + (− 1.3532) Tscorert. Conclusion: There are differences in body composition suggesting re-compartmentalization of the body, which may adversely impact the (HGS) muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Muscle strength and BMD areassociated with WB, although, only contribute to a marginal amount of the variance for WB. Therefore, other factors in addition to musculoskeletal health are necessary to mitigate fall risk in postmenopausal women.

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Author:Sam C. IbenemeORCiD, C. Ekanem, A. Ezuma, N. Iloanusi, N.N. Lasebikan, O.A. Lasebikan, O.E. Oboh
DOI original:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-018-2000-3
Parent Title (English):BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2018
Publishing Institution:Hochschule Hannover
Release Date:2018/10/24
Body composition; Bone mineral density; Muscle strength; Postmenopausal women; Walking balance
GND Keyword:Muskelkraft; Körperbau; Motorisches Gleichgewicht; Postmenopause
Link to catalogue:1698696655
Institutes:Fakultät III - Medien, Information und Design
DDC classes:610 Medizin, Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International