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Impact of physical exercises on immune function, bone mineral density, and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review with meta-analysis

  • Background: Compromised immune function, associated with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection, is improved by antiretroviral therapy (ART) which also decreases bone mineral density (BMD), and possibly the quality of life (QoL). However, physical (aerobic/resistance) exercises, were reported to induce reverse effects in uninfected individuals and were appraised in the literature for evidence of similar benefits in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA). The main study objective was to evaluate the impact of physical (aerobic and resistance) exercises on CD4+ count, BMD and QoL in PLWHA. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. Searching databases, up to June 2017, only randomized control trials investigating the effects of either aerobic, resistance or a combination of both exercise types with a control/other intervention(s) for a period of at least 4 weeks among adults living with HIV, were included. Two independent reviewers determined the eligibility of the studies. Data were extracted and risk of bias (ROB) was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration ROB tool. Meta-analyses were conducted using random effect models using the Review Manager (RevMan) computer software. Results: Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria(n = 491 participants at study completion) comprising male and female with age range 22–66 years. Two meta-analyses across 13 sub-group comparisons were performed. However, there were no RCTs on the impact of physical exercises on BMD in PLWHA. The result showed no significant change in CD4+ count unlike a significant effect of 5.04 point (95%CI:-8.49,-3.74,p = 0.00001) for role activity limitation due to physical health (QoL sub-domain). Overall, the GRADE evidence for this review was of moderate quality. Conclusions: There was evidence that engaging in moderate intensity aerobic exercises (55–85% Maximum heart rate-MHR), for 30–60 min, two to five times/week for 6–24 weeks significantly improves role activity limitation due to physical health problems, otherwise physical(aerobic or/and resistance) exercises have no significant effects on CD4+ count and other domains of QoL. Also, there is lack of evidence on the impact of exercises on BMD in PLWHA due to the paucity of RCTs. The moderate grade evidence for this review suggests that further research may likely have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effects and may change the estimate.

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Author:Sam Chidi IbenemeORCiD, Franklin Onyedinma Irem, Nneka Ifeyinwa Iloanusi, Amarachi Destiny Ezuma, Fortune Elochukwu Ezenwankwo, Philip Chinedu Okere, Amaka Obiageli Nnamani, Salome Nwaelom Ezeofor, Ngozi Regina Dim, Gerhard FortwengelORCiDGND
DOI original:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3916-4
Parent Title (English):BMC Infectious Diseases
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2019
Publishing Institution:Hochschule Hannover
Release Date:2019/06/24
Tag:Aerobic exercise; CD4+ cell count; Quality of Life; Resistance exercise; Systematic review
GND Keyword:HIV; Aerobes Training; Lebensqualität; Krafttraining
Link to catalogue:1690132108
Institutes:Fakultät III - Medien, Information und Design
DDC classes:610 Medizin, Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International